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Pediatric Ulnar Fracture

- See:
       - Pediatric Both Bone Forearm Fractures
       - Monteggia's Fracture
       - Green Stick Frx
       - Distal Ulnar Physeal Fractures

- Discussion:
    - pediatric ulnar frx often occur along w/ pediatric both bone forearm frx
           - ulnar frx may be complete or incomplete (green stick frx);
    - isolated ulnar shaft frx can occur in children (night stick mechanism) but w/ an "isolated frx," always consider a pediatric Monteggia's fracture
- Remodeling after Fracture:
    - see acceptable reduction for pediatric both bone forearm frx:
    - correction of ulnar bowing by osteoclasis is not necessary in a child under 4 years old who has less than 20 deg of plastic deformation;
    - if bowing is > 20 deg, reduction should be done by first reducing plastically deformed bone and then the fracture;
    - immobilization in a well-molded long arm cast is necessary to avoid recurrence of the deformity

Plastic deformation in pediatric fractures: mechanisms and treatment.

Traumatic plastic deformation of the radius and ulna. A closed method of correction of deformity.

Displaced diaphyseal forearm fractures in children: classification and evaluation of the early radiographic prognosis.

Pattern of forearm fractures in children.

Forearm fractures in children.  Pitfalls and complications.