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Aortic Regurgitation

* Physical Exam: (heard best if pt. sits up, leans forward, & exhale)

  • Early Diastolic (decrescendo) murmur.
  • Mid Systolic Ejection Murmur (Austin Flint)
  • S3 gallop (competes w/ diastolic murmur);
  • widened pulse pressure
  • Etiology:
  • Congenital (bicuspid valves)
  • Rheumatic hrt, Endocarditis
  • VSD;
  • Sequelae: Angina, LVH, CHF, DOE, orthopnea, PND;
  • small increase in After-Load may cause large increase in severity of AR