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Glenohumeral Joint

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- Anatomy:
    - GHJ has a greater ROM than any other joint;
    - Bony Anatomy:
         - its shallow, & is more akin to a grapefruit in saucer than ball in socket.
         - lack of bony stability & wide ROM permitted by loose ligamentous & capsular reinforcement account for fact that glenohumeral is most frequently dislocated joint in body.
    - Shoulder Capsule (see anatomy)
    - Muscular Stabilizers
    - Subacromial Bursa
    - Subdeltoid bursa lies on top of Rotator cuff & greatly facilitates movement of the cuff beneath the coracoacromial arch;
    - Coracoid
    - Coraco-acromial ligament:
          - one finger breadth lateral to Coracoid is glenohumeral joint, so coracoid process is important landmark in locating GHJ for aspiration or injection;

- Scapulothoracic Motion:
    - shoulder motion also occurs between Scapula & post thoracic wall;
    - when arm is abducted to 180 deg, there is approx 1 deg of scapulo-thoracic motion for every 2 deg of glenohumeral motion;
    - ratio of glenohumeral to scapulothoracic motion may vary normally depending on arm elevation in the scapular plane.
          - ratio has not been shown to play a role in glenohumeral stability

Current Concepts Review.  Fractures of the Glenoid Cavity.

Shoulder impingement syndrome: diagnosis, radiographic evaluation, and treatment with a modified Neer acromioplasty.

Current Concepts Review.  Migration of Pins Used in Operations on the Shoulder.

Dynamic electromyographic analysis of the throwing shoulder with glenohumeral instability.

An approach to the repair of avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments in the management of traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability.

Non-constrained total shoulder replacement in patients who have rheumatoid arthritis and class-IV function.

Glenohumeral osteoarthrosis. A late complication of the Putti-Platt repair.

Evaluation of the painful shoulder. A prospective comparison of magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomographic arthrography, ultrasonography, and operative findings.

Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value.

Histological studies of the glenoid labrum from fetal life to old age.

Translation of the humeral head on the glenoid with passive glenohumeral motion.

A functional analysis of shoulder fusions.

The relationship between dead arm syndrome and thoracic outlet syndrome.

The relationship of the glenohumeral joint capsule to the rotator cuff.

Anatomy, histology, and vascularity of the glenoid labrum. An anatomical study.

The normal glenohumeral relationships. An anatomical study of one hundred and forty shoulders.

The hinged shoulder spica cast for management after shoulder surgery.

Treatment of instability of the shoulder with an exercise program.

The use of computerized tomography in the measurement of glenoid version.

Scapulothoracic motion in normal shoulders and shoulders with glenohumeral instability and impingement syndrome. A study using Moiré topographic analysis.

Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular fractures of the glenoid fossa.

Supporting layers of the glenohumeral joint. An anatomic study.

Impingement syndrome in the absence of rotator cuff tear (stages 1 and 2).

Hypoplasia of the glenoid. A review of sixteen patients.

Prosthetic replacement of the shoulder for the treatment of defects in the rotator cuff and the surface of the glenohumeral joint

Mechanisms of glenohumeral joint stability.

The posterior deltoid-splitting approach to the shoulder.

Injuries of the superior portion of the glenoid labrum involving the insertion of the biceps tendon: MR imaging findings in nine cases.

SLAP lesions of the shoulder.

Capsular ligaments of the shoulder. Anatomical and functional study of the anterior superior capsule.

Relationship between the tendon of the long head of biceps brachii and the glenoidal labrum in humans.

Year Book: Anterior Capsulolabral Reconstruction of the Shoulder in Athletes in Overhand Sports.

Dynamic electromyographic analysis of the throwing shoulder with glenohumeral instability.

Isokinetic and isometric measurement of strength of external rotation and abduction of the shoulder.

Normal and abnormal motion of the shoulder.

Arthroscopic resection of glenoid labral tears in the athlete: a report of 29 cases.

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