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Congenital Deformities of the Hands

- See:
      - Absent Thumb
      - Annular Band Syndrome
      - Camptodactyly
      - Delta Phalanx
      - Hypoplastic Thumb
      - Lobster Hand
      - Macrodactyly:
      - Pouce Flottant Thumb
      - Polydactyly
      - Syndactyly
      - Radial Club Hand
      - Congenital Trigger Thumb
      - Radioulnar Synostosis

- Hemihypertrophy:
    - see macrodactyly:
    - have a significant incidence of Wilms' tumor;
    - for this reason, abdominal ultrasonography should not only be part of initial evaluation but should be performed yearly during the patients' growing years;
    - syndromes associated with hemihypertrophy:
          - Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
          - neurofibromatosis
          - Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome
          - Proteus syndrome
    - references:
         - Current Concepts Review - Hemihypertrophy. Concepts and Controversies.
         - Crossed Congenital Hemihypertrophy Associated with a Wilms' Tumor.

- Brachydactyly:
    - brachydactyly type C:
          - an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly variable penetrance;
          - incomplete gene expression:
                - shortening limited to the middle phalanges and the first metacarpal;
                - elongation of the radial side of the base of the second proximal phalanx;
          - complete gene expression:
                - shortening of all the metacarpals (thumb most affected)
                - brachymesophalangy (shortening of the middle phalanges);
                - shortening of the proximal phalanges of the index and middle fingers, with the proximal phalanges of the ring and small fingers of normal length;
                - elongation of the radial side of the base of the second proximal phalanx resulting in a trapezoidal shaped epiphysis;
                - ulnar deviation at the second and third MP joints and hypersegmentation (extra phalanx) of the index and middle fingers.
    - references:
          - Brachydactyly type C.  
          - Lengthening of short great toes by callus distraction.   
          - A comparison of two techniques for digital distraction lengthening in skeletally immature patients 

Reconstruction of the hypoplastic thumb.

Symposium--The Thumb: Congenital Thumb Deformities.

Symposium--The Thumb: The Choice of Procedure Following Thumb Amputation.

Symposium--The Thumb: Reconstruction of the Hypoplastic Thumb.

Symposium--The Thumb: Thumb Web Reconstruction.

Symposium--The Thumb: Reconstruction of a Balanced Thumb Through Tendon Transfers.

Congential absence of the scaphoid in the "VATER" association

Surgical treatment of type 0 radial longitudinal deficiency.