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Decreased: Vomiting Diabetes mellitus w/ ketoacidosis, Mineralocorticoid Excess Renal dz w/ Na loss; 
- also is commonly associated with loss of body potassium: 
- as potassium is lost from diuretics, hyperaldosteronism, DKA, TPN, diarrhea, or vomiting, the potassium deletion is accompanied by a concomitant loss of chloride and is manifested by hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis