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Running Injuries

- Types of Injuries:
    - short leg syndrome: (see growth deformities of the limbs)
             - unequal leg lengths may predispose to injury in shorter leg;
    - trochanteric bursitis:
             - gluteus medius attaches by a broad insertion into its lateral aspect;
             - below this insertion the bone is covered by the iliotibial tract;
             - a bursa is occassionally the site of inflammaion, lies between the tract and the bone over the relatively bare portion of the trochanter;
             - diff dx: avascular necrosis:
                     - AVN often refers pain laterally whereas DJD refers pain medially;
             - steroid injections can provide dramatic relief;
    - iliotibial band syndrome:
    - semimembranosous tendonitis:
            - predominates in males > 30 yrs of age;
            - inflammmation at insertion site of direct head of tendon into area of posterior tubercle of tibia can be detected by increased activity on bone scan;
    - pes anserinus bursitis;
            - pain 6 in below joint line in medial tibia, w/ swelling & tenderness;
            - can be treated w/ NSAIDs and rest;
            - this condition should be differentiated w/ stress frx of proximal tibia;
    - popliteus tendinitis
            - popliteal tendinitis occurs mainly as result of either hyperpronation or excessive downhill running;
            - pain is localized over popliteus tendon just anterior to LCL;
            - refractory cases may benefit from a local injection of steroids;
    - patellar tendonitis (jumper's knee):
    - exertional compartment syndrome:
    - gastrocnemius rupture
            - typically ruptures occur off of the medial origin and may mimic compartment syndrome;
    - tibial stress frx:
    - medial tibial shin splints:
            - exercise related pain in the posterior mid to distal 1/3 of the tibia can be related to periostitis at origin of the posterior tibialis;
            - exam is notable  for local tenderness with pain on resisted plantar flexion and inversion;
            - x-ray may show periosteal change several wks after onset of symptoms;

    - Foot and Ankle: (orthotics for the foot)
          - achilles tendon contracture:
          - hyperpronation of the foot:
          - heel pain:
          - metatarsalgia:
          - hallux rigidus:

    - Metabolic 
          - hyponatremia:

Muscular control of the ankle in running.   

Phys Ed: Do Certain Types of Sneakers Prevent Injuries?

Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Assigning Running Shoes Based on Plantar Shape in Marine Corps Basic Training.

Is your prescription of distance running shoes evidence-based?

The effect of three different levels of footwear stability on pain outcomes in women runners: a randomised control trial.

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