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Arcuate Ligament

- Discussion:
    - it is not a separate ligament but is condensation of fibers of origin of popliteus and helps form the arcuate complex:
    - arcuate ligament is a Y shaped condensation of fibers that courses from the fibular head, over the popliteus, to 
          insert on the posterior capsule;
    - spans junction between popliteus & its tendon from fibula to femur in the postero-lateral aspect of knee;
          - lies just behind LCL;
          - it lies between 2 laminae of capsule, which are always separated by the inferior geniculate vessels;
          - medial limb of the arcuate ligament joins fibers of oblique ligament;
          - it is firmly adherent to the underlying musculotendinous junction of popliteus;
    - both arcuate and fabellogibular ligaments insert on apex of fibular styloid;
          - both ligaments ascend vertically to attach to lateral head of gastrocnemius,
                 - they are joined by posterior termination of oblique popliteal ligament;
   - absence of arcuate ligament:
          - ligament thickness is greatest in knees lacking a well-defined fabellofibular ligament;
          - when fabella is large, there is no arcuate ligament & fabellofibular ligament is robust;
          - when cartilagenous fabella is present both fabellofibular ligament & arcuate ligament will be present but smaller than normal;
                 - both ligaments are present in 2/3 of patients

Chronic posterolateral rotatory instability of the knee.

The role of the posterolateral and cruciate ligaments in the stability of the human knee. A biomechanical study.

Limits of movement in the human knee. Effect of sectioning the posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral structures.

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