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Bankart Lesion


- Discussion:
    - is an avulsion of the anteroinferior glenoid labrum at its attachment to IGHL complex;
    - lesion is felt to result from anterior shoulder dislocation and is felt to be primary lesion in recurrent anterior instability;
    - when Bankart lesion occurs, there is obligitory concomitant capsular disruption, w/ stretching or elongation of the IGHL;
          - in up to 30% of patients the IGHL will heal in a redundant position;
    - diff dx:
          - glenoid labrum has many variations;
          - fraying is the most common and often does not indicate pathology;
          - anterior glenoid defect:
                - in the experimental study by Itoi I, et al. (2000), the authors studied the role of an anterior gleoid defect (after Bankhart repair) on anterior instability;
                       - they found that an osseous defect with a width that is at least 21% (about 7 mm) of the glenoid length may cause instability and limit the range of motion of the shoulder after Bankart repair;
          - antero-superior labral anomalies:
                - congential anomalies of labrum are often seen in its anterior and superior portion;
                - isolated lesions of the anterosuperior portion of the labrum which do not involve the biceps brachii, will not cause significant changes in anteroposterior or superoinferior glenohumeral translation;
                       - surgical debridment is not indicated;
                - labral lesions which extend from the anterosuperior portion of the labrum to the biceps insertion will result in significant changes in glenohumeral translation;  
          - Hagl Lesion:
                - avulsion of inferior ligament from the humerus;
                - ref:  Radiologic Case Study
- Exam: Rotatory Stress Test
- ref: The effect of a glenoid defect on anteroinferior stability of the shoulder after Bankart repair: a cadaveric study.

- Radiographs:
    - West Point Axillary View: may identify bony Bankhart;
    - Stryker Notch

- MRI of the Shoulder:
    - references:
         - MR imaging of the labral-capsular complex: Normal variations.
         - CT and MR evaluation of the labral capsular ligamentous complex of the shoulder

- Anterior Shoulder Reconstruction:
         - axillary surgical approach
         - bankart lesion fixation technique

- Arthroscopic Shoulder Reconstruction

Congenital anteroinferior instability treated by Bankart repair.

Analysis of Bankart lesion in the recurrent dislocation or subluxation of the shoulder.

Recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Long-term follow-up of the Putti-Platt and Bankart procedures.

Recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Results after the Bankart and Putti-Platt operations.

The Bankart procedure: a long-term end-result study.

Biomechanical evaluation of a simulated Bankart lesion.

Modification of the Bankart reconstruction with a suture anchor. Report of a new technique.

Bankart Repair for Anterior Instability of the Shoulder. Long Term Outcome.

Biomechanical evaluation of a simulated Bankart lesion.