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Differential Dx of Hemarthrosis

- See: Puncture of the Knee Joint

- Discussion:
    - non-bloody effusion suggests an irrative synovitis that may be caused by degenerative meniscusor a chronic process with no 
           super imposed acute injury;
    - absence of hemarthrosis is not indication of less severe ligament injury, since severe disruptions often cause only minimal joint 
           - disruption may be so complete that blood escapes into soft tissues and the popliteal space rather than distending the joint;
    - tense hemarthosis of effusion may prevent full extension of the knee joint and should be evacuated;
           - aspirate should always be examined for fat globules which may indicated osteochondral fracture or tibial plateau fracture;

- Traumatic Hemarthrosis:
    - Anterior or Posterior cruciate ligament injury
    - Chondral fracture
    - Dislocation of the Patella
    - Patellar Sleeve Frx:
    - Meniscal Tear
    - Intra-articlar fracture
          - intercondylar eminence frx;
    - Tear in the deep portion of the joint capsule

- Non Traumatic Hemarthrosis:
    - Pigmented Villonodular synovitis
    - Hemangioma
    - Hemophilia:
    - Sickle Cell Anemia:
    - Charcot Joint
    - Anticoagulant therapy
    - Myleloproliferative disease with thrombocytosis
    - Thrombocytopenia
    - Synovioma
    - Scurvy
    - Ruptured Aneurysm
    - AV fistula

The role of arthroscopic surgery in the evaluation of acute traumatic hemarthrosis of the knee.

Arthroscopy in acute traumatic hemarthrosis of the knee. Incidence of anterior cruciate tears and other injuries.

Acute haemarthrosis of the knee in athletes. A prospective study of 106 cases.