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Spina Bifida


- See:
      - Vertebral Defects:
      - Myelodysplasia:

- Discussion:
    - Spina Bifida refers to a local failure of primordia of the two laminae to unite leaves vertebral canal open dorsally (spinal rachischisis, or 
           spina bifida);
    - dorsal body wall may or may not be intact over open vertebral canal;
    - sub-types:
           - spina bifida occulta:
                  - defect involves primarily bone, but skin may be attached to Dura, spinal cord, or nerve roots by fibrous bands;
           - spina bifida cystica:
                  - neural tissue may be exposed (myeloschisis)
                  - meninges may protrude (meningocele)
                  - spinal cord may protrude (myelomeningocele);
    - diastematomyelia:
           - related to spina bifida is condition known as diastematomyelia, in which the spinal cord is split by bony spicule or a fibrous band, w/ 
                 each portion surrounded by a dural sac;
           - as child grows, a long spicule of bone or a fibrous band may tether spinal cord and produce neurologic deficits

Orthopaedic management of high-level spina bifida. Early walking compared with early use of a wheelchair 

The high incidence of foot deformity in patients with high-level spina bifida.

Hand function in patients with spina bifida cystica

Walking ability in mature patients with spina bifida.  

Congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tract in association with congenital vertebral malformations