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Supination and Pronation of Foot

- Supination:
    - supination of foot is a combination of inward rotation at the ankle, adduction of the hindfoot, inversion of the forefoot, and medial arch elevation;
    - subtalar joint supination is 3 planes of motion simultaneously:
         - adduction
         - inversion
         - plantarflexion
    - as foot supinates the lateral structures tighten;
         - continued supination and adduction force may rupture portions of  lateral collateral ligaments or avulse these ligaments from their bony attachment sites on the distal fibula, resulting in an ankle sprain;

- Pronation:
    - subtalar joint pronation is also 3 planes of motion simultaneously
         - abduction of forefoot;
         - eversion of hindfoot;
         - dorsiflexion
         - medial arch depressed;
         - deficiency of medial forefoot post;
    - hyperpronation can be a developmental response to tibia vara;
    - excessive foot pronation has been speculated to be a cause of leg and foot problems among runners;
         - changes in shoe design does improve foot alignment over running barefoot in a pt w/ forefoot pronation

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