- 300 mg ropivacaine (0.2%) (150 mL) + 30 mg ketorolac (1 mL) + 500 µg of epinephrine (1:1000) (0.5 mL) (prepared on the sterile field)
- 18 gauge needle is used to inject in 3 equal 50 mL doses into each of 3 locations:
(a) posterior capsule
(b) medial, lateral capsule and the edges of the capsular incision
(c) subcutaneous tissue along both edges of the incision
- 21 hour postoperative injection:
- at the time of surgery standard 17 or 19 gauge epidural catheter that inserted with a tuohy needle (epidural needle)
- 100 mg (more does not work any better or last longer);
- Efficacy of Periarticular Multimodal Drug Injection in Total Knee Arthroplasty. A Randomized Trial
- Analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic wound administration in knee arthroplasty: volume vs concentration.
- Local Infiltration Analgesia in TKA Patients Reduces Length of Stay and Postoperative Pain Scores
- Reduced morphine consumption and pain intensity with local infiltration analgesia (LIA) following total knee arthroplasty.
- A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty
- Pain control after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized trial comparing local infiltration anesthesia and continuous femoral block.
- Comparison of peri- and intraarticular analgesia with femoral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial.
- Current and Innovative Pain Management Techniques in Total Knee Arthroplasty
- Single periarticular local infiltration analgesia reduces opiate consumption until 48 hours after total knee arthroplasty. A randomized placebo-controlled trial involving 56 patients.
- Intraarticular analgesia versus epidural plus femoral nerve block after TKA: a randomized, double-blind trial
- Local anesthetics as antimicrobial agents: a review.
- Comparison of the antibacterial activity of lidocaine 1% versus alkalinized lidocaine in vitro.
- Effect of lidocaine and epinephrine on Staphylococcus aureus in a guinea pig model of surgical wound infection.
- Antimicrobial activity of lidocaine against bacteria associated with nosocomial wound infection.
- Drug contamination from opening glass ampules.