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Anterior Cruciate Ligament

- Extra-articular Reconstruction:
    - these type of procedures are now no longer used as the primary reconstructive method for ACL tears;
    - some authors feel that the extra-articular reconstruction may have a role in augmenting the intra-articular reconstruction;
    - references:
           - Biomechanics of intra-articular and extra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.
           - The effect of an extra-articular procedure on allograft reconstructions for chronic ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament.
           - Intraarticular versus intraarticular and extraarticular reconstruction for chronic anterior cruciate ligament instability.
           - Anterolateral rotatory instability of the knee joint. An early analysis of the Ellison procedure.
           - Anterior cruciate reconstruction using the Jones-Ellison procedure.
           - Distal iliotibial-band transfer for anterolateral rotatory instability of the knee.
           - Long-term functional results in patients with anterolateral rotatory instability treated by iliotibial band transfer.
           - The Ellison iliotibial-band transfer for a torn anterior cruciate ligament of the knee. Long-term follow-up.
           - Bone-block iliotibial band reconstruction for anterior cruciate insufficiency. Follow-up note and minimum five-year follow-up period.
           - Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using the bone-block iliotibial-tract transfer.
           - Anterior cruciate reconstruction using the MacIntosh lateral-substitution over-the-top repair.
           - Nine-year follow-up results of two methods of MacIntosh anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions.
           - MacIntosh reconstruction of the ACL: comparison of lateral substitution with ocmbined lateral substitution and intra-articular reconstruction.
                  S Dempsey and RJA Tregonning.  JBJS Vol 72-B. 1990. p 941.

- Misc. Articles:

Arthroscopy--"no-problem surgery". An analysis of complications in two thousand six hundred and forty cases.

Effects of joint load on the stiffness and laxity of ligament-deficient knees. An in vitro study of the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments.

Failure of anterior cruciate-ligament reconstruction using tendon xenograft.

Coactivation of the hamstrings and quadriceps during extension of the knee.

Combined reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in competitive athletes.

The clinical relevance of instrumented testing for ACL insufficiency. Experience with the UCLA clinical knee testing apparatus.

Acute anterior cruciate ligament repair.

Acute anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Analysis of complications.

Arthroscopy in acute traumatic hemarthrosis of the knee. Incidence of anterior cruciate tears and other injuries.

The physiology of mechanoreceptors in the anterior cruciate ligament. An experimental study in decerebrate-spinalised animals.

The strength of the anterior cruciate ligament in humans and Rhesus monkeys.

Instability of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments.

Quadriceps/anterior cruciate graft interaction. An in vitro study of joint kinematics and anterior cruciate ligament graft tension.

Suture of the torn anterior cruciate ligament. 5-year follow-up of 60 cases using an instrumental stability test.

The Measurement of Elongation of Anterior Cruciate-Ligament Grafts in Vivo.

Reconstruction of the anteiror cruciate ligament in patients who are at least forty years old. A long term follow up and outcome study.