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Genu Valgum

- Discussion:
    - bilateral angular deformity: common and is most often physiologic;
         - normal knee alignment progresses from 10-15 deg of varus at birth to maximal valgus angulation of 10-15 deg at age of 3-3.5 yrs;
         - neutral alignment:
                - neutral femoral-tibial alignment occurs at 12-14 months old;
                - Greene: neutral femoral-tibial alignment at 14 months old;
    - unilateral genu valgum: often occurs from pathological conditions;
         - fibrous dysplasia
         - Ollier's disease
         - dyschondrosteosis
         - neurofibromatosis
         - physeal injury
         - idiopathic fibrous tether;

- Radiographs:
    - physiologic genu valgum, or knock knees, develops next, w/ maximal deformity occurring at 3 years of age;
    - gradual correction to ultimate alignment of slight genu valgum occurs by 9 years of age in the great majority of patients;
    - reference:
          - Physiological bowing and tibia vara. The metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle in the measurement of bowleg deformities.

Normal limits of knee angle in white children--genu varum and genu valgum

Use of the Metaphyseal-Diaphyseal Angle in the Evaluation of Bowed Legs.

Progressive genu valgum secondary to a fibrous tether at the distal aspect of the femur. A case report.

Genu varus and valgus in children.