The Hip book
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Intrameduallary Devicies

- Ender nails introduced in 1970;
    - nails backing out of the medullary canal
    - perforation of nails thru the femoral head
    - external rotational deformity at the fracture site
    - distal migration
    - ref:
          - The use of Ender's pins in extracapsular fractures of the hip.
          - Ender nailing for peritrochanteric fractures of the femur. An analysis of indications, factors related to mechanical failure, and postoperative results.
          - Unstable intertrochanteric fractures of the hip. Treatment with Ender pins compared with a compression hip-screw.
- Kuntscher and Harris: single nail; (Harris condylocephalic nail)
    - designed single nail to prevent external rotational deformity and distal migration noted w/ the Ender nails;
    - Harris nail, however, tends to lose fixation w/ rotational deformity