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Anaerobic Joint Infections:

- Discussion:
     - see bacterial menu
- Peptostreptococcus magnus, Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Actinobacillus, Eikenella and proprionobacter acnes;
- uncommon cause of septic arthritis (in over 80% of cases, the infection occurr after surgery or trauma, and in patients receiving steroids)

     - Gram-negative anaerobes:
              - Bacteroides (the most commonly found anaerobes in cultures; intra-abdominal infections, rectal abscesses, soft tissue infections, liver infection)
- Fusobacterium (abscesses, wound infections, pulmonary and intracranial infections)
- Porphyromonas (aspiration pneumonia, periodontitis)
- Prevotella (intra-abdominal infections, soft tissue infections)
- Septic arthritis of the knee due to Prevotella loescheii following tooth extraction

- Gram-positive anaerobes:
              - Actinomyces (head, neck, pelvic infections; aspiration pneumonia)
- Bifidobacterium (ear infections, abdominal infections)
Antibiotic Susceptibility of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Species from the Human Gastrointestinal Tract
- Antimicrobial susceptibility of bifidobacteria
- Clostridium (gas, gangrene, food poisoning, tetanus, pseudomembranous colitis) (see difficile)
- Peptostreptococcus (oral, respiratory, and intra-abdominal infections)
Destructive Knee Joint Infection Caused by Peptostreptococcus micros: Importance of Early Microbiological Diagnosis
- Propionibacterium (shunt infections)
- reference:
- Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci

MIC values (mg/L) for GPAC species or groups against 10 antimicrobial agents
Management of Anaerobic Infection:

- references:

- Microbiology and management of joint and bone infections due to anaerobic bacteria.
- Concomitant septic and gouty arthritis--an analysis of 30 cases.
- Detection of anaerobic prosthetic joint infection by PCR and DNA sequencing--a case report.
- Joint infection by anaerobic bacteria: a case report and review of the literature
- Sonication of Removed Hip and Knee Prostheses for Diagnosis of Infection
- Anaerobic bacteria culture
- Identification of bacteria on the surface of clinically infected and non-infected prosthetic hip joints removed during revision arthroplasties by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by microbiological culture
- Capnocytophaga canimorsus a novel pathogen for joint arthroplasty.



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