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Adolescent Blounts Disease

- Discussion:
  - adolescent tibia vara (Blount's disease), results from disordered growth of  proximal medial physis & metaphysis;
  - localized varus deformity, often accompanied by medial tibial torsion;
  - caused by osteochondrosis resulting from mechanical stress converting physiologic bowlegs to tibia vara;
  - risk factors: common in blacks & obese children;
  - adolescent Blount's is less severe and predominately unilateral; 

- Treatment:
       - high tibial osteotomy: 
       - also consider need for valgus femoral osteotomy;
                - Femoral deformity in tibia vara
                - Comprehensive treatment of late-onset tibia vara.   

Treatment of adolescent tibia vara by asymmetrical physeal distraction.

Adolescent tibia vara: alternatives for operative treatment.

Blount's disease after skeletal maturity.

Comprehensive Treatment of Late-Onset Tibia Vara

Outcome of Hemiepiphyseal Stapling for Late-Onset Tibia Vara. 

Results of Screw Epiphysiodesis for the Treatment of Limb Length Discrepancy and Angular Deformity. 

Treatment of Adolescent Tibia Vara with Hemiepiphysiodesis: Risk Factors for Failure