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Spine and Scoliosis in Cerebral Palsy

- See: scoliosis menu:

- Non Operative Treatment:
    - many patients can achieve functional sitting with body jackets or molded wheelchair inserts;
    - custom molded seat insertes allow better positioning but do not prevent curve progression;

- Surgical Treatment:
    - w/ spastic quadriplegia scoliosis can be especially severe, and is associated with an increased incidence of pseudoarthrosis if treated with 
          conventional posterior fusion;
          - anterior and posterior fusion or segmental instrumentation is favored in patients who can no longer sit properly;
    - curves > 80 deg, rigid curves, and those w/ severe pelvic obliquity require combined anterior & posterior arthrodesis;
    - fusion to the sacrum is required with a fixed pelvic obliquity (eg. with Luque rods to the pelvis - Galveston technique);
    - kyphosis is also common and may require fusion & instrumentation

The lumbar spine in spastic diplegia. A radiographic study.

Surgery of spinal deformity in cerebral palsy. Twelve years in the evolution of scoliosis management.

The treatment of scoliosis in cerebral palsy by posterior spinal fusion with Luque-rod segmental instrumentation.

Cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy secondary to athetoid cerebral palsy.

Interspinous process segmental spinal instrumentation for scoliosis in cerebral palsy.

Progression of scoliosis after skeletal maturity in institutionalized adults who have cerebral palsy.