- See: Atlanto-Axial Subluxation:
- atlantoaxial rotary subluxation in association w/ pharyngeal infection, occurs predominantly in children;
- it results in severe torticollis, resistant to manual therapy;
- > 5 mm of anterior displacement of arch of C-1 (Fielding type III) indicates disruption of both facet capsules as well as transverse
- reduction w/ skeletal traction, followed by atlantoaxial fusion, is recommended;
- vast majority of pts w/ this form of torticollis improve spontaneously;
- in those few cases in which persistent sig instability is present, stabilization by posterior atlantoaxial arthrodesis is required.
Grisel's syndrome. Cervical spine clinical, pathologic, and neurologic manifestations.
The pharyngovertebral veins: an anatomical rationale for Grisel's syndrome.