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Cervical spine in JRA

- Discussion:
    - involvement can lead to kyphosis, facet ankylosis, & atlantoaxial subluxation;
    - the majority of patients w/ polyarticular JRA may show C-spine involvement;

- Radiographs:
    - anterior erosion of the odontoid process;
    - anterior posterior erosion of odontoid process;
    - subluxation of C1 on C2;
    - focal soft tissue calcification anterior to the ring of C1
    - ankylosis of apophyseal joints (often leading to ankylosis & fusion of vertebrals bodies);
    - longitudinal and circumferential growth abnormalities of adjacent vertebral bodies following spontaneous posterior fusions
    - subaxial subluxations between C2 and C7 (often associated w/ ankylosis of facet joints above and below the area of subluxations)