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Upper Extremity Touniquet

- Forearm:
    - in the report by Edwards et al, the authors performed a prospective study was undertaken to compare
           the use of forearm and upper arm tourniquets for local anaesthetic procedures on the hand;
           - 100 consecutive patients with an upper arm tourniquet were compared with a further consecutive 100 patients in whom a forearm tourniquet was used;
           - tourniquet time was always less than 20 minutes and the scoring of perceived pain was not significantly different in the two groups;
           - use of a forearm tourniquet was well tolerated and was not associated with an increase in complications;
    - references:
           - Clinical application of the forearm tourniquet.
           - Efficacy of forearm versus upper arm tourniquet for local anaesthetic surgery of the hand.

- Wrist:
    - reference:
          - The wrist tourniquet: an alternative technique in hand surgery.

- Digits:
    - references:
          - Tips of the trade #42. An improved technique for creating a digital tourniquet.
          - Digital tourniquets: a pressure study with clinical relevance.
          - Guidelines for the use of digital tourniquets based on physiological pressure measurements.

Minimal tourniquet pressure to maintain arterial closure in upper limb surgery.

Upper extremity tourniquet tolerance.

Local compression patterns beneath pneumatic tourniquets applied to arms and thighs of human cadavera.

Limb exsanguination. I. The arm: effect of angle of elevation and arterial compression.

Reversal of digital vasospasm by glyceryl trinitrate patch.

Perineural pressures under the pneumatic tourniquet in the upper extremity.

Upper extremity entrapment neuropathy and tourniquet use in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Optimizing tourniquet application and release times in extremity surgery. A biochemical and ultrastructural study.