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Limb Development

- See:
      - Anatomy of the Physis
      - Deformities
      - Enchondral Ossification
      - Longitudinal Growth:
      - Pediatric Bone Circulation
      - Salter Harris

- Discussion:
    - at about the 4th week of development, paired upper and lower limb buds appear;
          - the upper limb bud appears at day 25-27;
          - at approx 47 days when the joints of the hand develop;
          - the lower limb bud appears at day 27-29;
    - each limb bud onsists of mesenchyme covered by ectoderm of lateral body wall;
    - mesenchyme of the limb bud derives from lateral body wall, & some if it migrated into limb bud from adjacent somites;
    - development of lower limb lags behind the upper limb;
    - limb buds bend ventrally at sites of future elbows and knees, leaving these structures pointing laterally while the palms and soles facing 
    - upper limbs then undergo external rotation while lower limb undergo internal rotation

The Ectodermal Thickening and Ridge in the Limbs of Staged Human Embryos. O'Rahilly R, et al. J Embryl Exp Morphology. 4(3):254-264.

Development of the upper limb

Reconstructing the history of human limb development: lessons from birth defects

The molecular control of upper extremity development: implications for congenital hand anomalies.

The developmental anatomy of the neonatal glenohumeral joint.

Transforming Growth Factors β Coordinate Cartilage and Tendon Differentiation in the Developing Limb Mesenchyme

Muscle and tendon morphogenesis in the avian hind limb

Study Links Painkillers to Reproductive Disorders

The morphological features of the mediopatellar and lateral folds of the developing knee joint: a fetus cadaveric study.