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Classification of Fractures: 9 fracture patterns

(Johner and Wruhs: Clin. Orthop. 178:7-25, 1983)
A1                 A2                     A3
simple frc         butterfly fragment       comminution
Class:         A1 spiral         A2 oblique               A3 transverse
Activity:     from skiing       MVA/motorcycle           soccer/MVA
Mechanism:     torsion           uneven bending           pure bending
B1                   B2                     B3
Class:         B1 spiral frc     wedge frag w/           many butterfly
w/ butterfly       butterfly               fragments
Activity:     from skiing       car bumper/Mcycle       car bumper
Mechanism:     torsion &         bending + compression   bending/compression
bending           low speed               high speed
Rx                               closed reduction/
long Cast
C1                   C2                     C3
Class:         spiral frc w/     seg. frc w/ cir-         segmentally com-
many butterfly     cumfirentially intact   minuted w/o an
mid. segment             intact mid segment
Activity:     high speed ski     car bumper               MVA/war/industry
Mechanism:     high speed         4 point bending         crush/penetrating